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Clinical Trials

What is a Clinical Trial?

Clinical trials are research studies that involve patient participants. Researchers use them to answer specific questions about the safety and effectiveness of new drugs, procedures, surgical techniques, or medical devices. Clinical trials are the best tools for researchers to learn more about RMC and what may or may not work to prevent it, treat it, or manage its symptoms and side effects. Clinical trials are experimental and thus there is a degree of uncertainty when it comes to participating in a clinical trial. It’s important for potential participants to thoroughly understand the risks and benefits involved. Clinical trial participation is voluntary and participants may withdraw from trials at any time for any reason. Participating in a clinical trial does not guarantee a desired result or outcome but the findings add to the medical knowledge about kidney cancer and its treatment and can help improve and prolong the lives of current and future patients.

Types of Clinical Trials

Phase I

Phase I trials are the initial studies of drugs or treatments designed to establish the safest dose, decide how the new treatment should be given, and see how the body and the cancer cells are affected.

Phase II

Phase II trials determine if the new treatment is effective against a particular type of cancer and continue to monitor how the body is affected by the treatment.

Phase III

Phase III trials compare a new treatment or new use of a treatment with the current standard treatment.

Key Terms to Be Familiar With 

Randomized Clinical Trials

Randomized trials are when patients are directed into one of two or more treatment categories using a random selection technique to ensure the validity of the trial results. Participants in phase III trials and occasionally phase II trials are typically randomized to compare two or more treatments and may include a placebo group.

Placebo Group

In a clinical trial, a placebo is an inactive product that resembles the product being tested but it has no treatment effect. Placebos are an efficient way to demonstrate the effectiveness of a new treatment. Trial participants are told if there is a placebo group as part of the trial design, but they may not know whether they will be part of an active treatment group or the placebo group. Phase II and III trials might include a placebo group if there is no standard treatment against which to compare a new drug.


Blinded, or masked, trials are designed to prevent the research team and the participants from influencing the study results. In a blinded trial, the research team knows which participants are receiving the treatment and which participants are receiving the placebo, but participants do not know. In a double-blind trial, neither the research team nor the participants knows who is receiving which treatment.

How Do I find a clinical trial?

Asking your healthcare team about clinical trials is a good way to begin gathering information about what clinical trials are and whether there are ongoing clinical trials that might be right for you. The most comprehensive database of clinical trials conducted in the United States is available at This searchable database includes information about a trial’s purpose, who may participate, where the trial locations are, and who to contact for further details about the trial and eligibility criteria. Your health care provider can help you evaluate trials and eligibility.

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